Globally, hemorrhoids are one of the most common conditions. Over 80% of the world's population is affected by this unpleasant and painful medical problem. Even pregnant women have hemorrhoids.
Today, the causes of the disease are still unknown, but certain predisposing factors determine it. These are: chronic constipation, unhealthy, processed foods, fast food, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, liver disease, sitting for long periods of time, smoking, alcohol and spice abuse.
In the literature, hemorrhoids are dilated veins of the rectum. Everyone has hemorrhoidal tissue in this area, and it is made up of blood vessels, connective tissue and muscles. After their localization the hemorrhoids may be internal or external. The external ones can be observed around the anus and are associated with the presence of pain, intense local discomfort.
With the naked eye, they can be seen and are described as veins covered by skin that have swollen and have a blue color. Internal hemorrhoids are harder to diagnose, but they have the advantage of not missing and not visible because they are inside the anal canal. The presence of blood in the stool may be one of the first signs that warn of the existence of hemorrhoids. Careful! And other serious illnesses can be manifested by the presence of blood in the stool.
The main symptoms are:
- itching around the anus or rectal area,
- pain around the anus,
- the presence of blood in the stool
- anal abscess,
- a marked local discomfort,
- the presence of fistulas
The specialist proctologist establishes the diagnosis after performing a local examination of the anal region, after performing the rectal cough or the patient performing a colonoscopy. This investigation is essential because it can be used to diagnose differentially from other conditions such as colon cancer, the presence of certain polyps or colitis. These diseases also have the presence of blood in the stool, but they can be life-threatening conditions such as colon cancer.
The treatment of the hemorrhoids will be determined by the doctor according to their degree
In the early stages, hospitalization is not obligatory and the treatment is not surgical. Firstly, the elimination of the causes leading to their occurrence will be established, a diet will be prescribed to exclude spicy, processed food, food chaos, avoid sedentary lifestyle, obesity and constipation. These rules apply especially to the case of internal hemorrhoids as a rule at their onset. The most commonly used method is elastic ligation. There is also a method called in medical terms – infrared or laser photocoagulation, as well as cryotherapy. But when there are complications, the only treatment is the operation that aims to excise hemorrhoids