Devastating cancer that can be treated successfully if it is detected early. In Romania, this type of cancer is ranked 4th in a ranking of the main types of cancer, and is ranked 3th worldwide.
According to the latest statistics provided by the Global Cancer Observatory, colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly encountered in medical practice: Last year, more than 1.8 million people worldwide were diagnosed with this type of cancer, the total number of over 18 million cases.
It is the third as frequency among men and the second as frequency in women. In Romania, 26 people per thousand make colorectal cancer, this type of malignancy being ranked 4th as a frequency in a ranking of the main types of cancer.
"Unfortunately, in Romania, patients often reach a state-of-the-art physician, even stage 4, when there are already liver metastases or peritoneal carcinomatosis (tumor dissemination in the abdominal cavity) or pulmonary metastases. And then an oncological treatment is first done in the hope that the patient will enter a period of remission, perhaps even healing, the stage 4 surgery being done only in superfluous moments of occlusion, peritonitis in which you must enter to save life or make a digestive tract so as to prolong the life of the sick, "describes the most serious situation, the primary surgeon surgeon Stefan Tuca, a specialist who frequently practices colon cancer.
Among the risk factors for colon cancer are obesity, sedentary disease, genetic inheritance, smoking, alcohol excess, diets rich in hypercaloric and non-fat foods.
"There are also diseases that predispose to malignant pathology such as ulcerohemorrhagic rectocolitis, familial rectocolonial polyposis, Crohn's disease. Patients with these conditions should be investigated frequently and most do. For colon and rectal polyps, a good gastroenterologist biopsies and follows them every 6 months to see if they become dysplastic, ie if they do not disrupt their intrinsic architecture and become malignant tumors. But there are also gastroenterologists who decide to be removed during the endoscopic procedure: polyps can be resected during colonoscopy. If they can not be gastroenterologically treated, and here we are talking about polyps having a broad implantation base, surgical intervention is indicated, especially in severely displaced polyps. Grade 3 is considered preneoplastic dysplasia, which can turn into adenocarcinoma. In such situations, surgeons intervene and perform complete excision so that the patient does not cause malignancy, "says the surgeon.
In fact, colorectal cancer can be successfully treated through surgery if it is detected early in life. The condition is that any person over 45 years of age should go to a doctor regularly and do some investigations, such as feces or colonoscopy, at the advice of the gastroenterologist. If it detects certain tumor formations, surgery is the solution.
"In patients who are found with smaller rectal or colorectal tumors, a resection surgery can be performed, removing the tumor, at least 12 ganglia for anatomopathology, and restoring continuity through digestive anastomosis between the two remaining structures. There are also those patients where you can successfully do laparoscopic minimally invasive surgical procedures, after which they recover much faster and return much earlier to work and family. Depending on the post-surgical staging, the patient is guided to an oncology treatment led by the oncologist, as well, with great healing potential. Colon, rectal, stage 1, 2 and even 3-stage cancer treatments are therapeutic successes ", describes the performance of the surgical treatment of colorectal cancer Dr. Stefan Tuca.
The gastroenterologist, surgeon, oncologist and radioterapist are the team that diagnoses and treats colorectal cancer. And in Romania, protocols like any advanced country apply, laparoscopy, performing drugs, and giving up the colon preparation before surgery is one of the latest generation methods.
"Now, colorectal surgery is getting less and less colonic preparation, ie no more colon stool is evacuated. It has been shown to be better in the long run. Colonial preparation is done only before colonoscopy. The colon is accustomed to the bacteria, and we intervene according to the protocols. Of course there is a septic time, but you're taking precautions to get it all right. Colonic preparation is traumatic to the colon and generates a degree of edema in the colic wall. Or, you want to remove a portion of the colon and make a stitch between two parts of the colon that are edematous. And then, it was found that this edema has a postoperative digestive fistula. And then, in selected and possible cases, you do not do this colonial training better to be safe from the point of view of aanstomosis and digestive bleeding. In addition, postoperatively, intestinal transit resumes more easily, "says the surgeon.
In some situations, radiotherapy is also part of the colorectal cancer therapy protocol.
"Radiotherapy is made in rectum cancers, which can be divided into upper, middle and inferior. For upper rectum tumors, the first indicated therapeutic time is the surgical one. For middle and lower rectum tumors, radiotherapy is initially performed and 6 weeks after radiotherapy, surgery is performed to remove what is to be removed, analyzed histopathologically and, depending on the outcome, there is the possibility of associating postoperative chemotherapy ", Describing the directions of the radiotherapy doctor Ştefan Tucă.
A colon cancer patient has to go to a doctor six to six months to monitor his health. This may include colonoscopy, tomography, and other investigations. Currently, many of the colorectal cancers can be avoided by a healthy lifestyle, no smoking, alcohol, and high-fat diets.